Psychology of Memory:  
       Vividness and Memory

     Imagine that you have to teach a course that many
students find difficult and dry.  Many students seem to
have difficulty recalling many of the concepts in the
course.  What can you do to increase their recall of
concepts and improve grades on exams?
    Presenting information in a vivid manner is one
possible technique that might increase recall of
information.  Information could be presented in a more
vivid manner by making it more concrete, detailed, and
    Some studies suggest that greater vividness in a
message increases the ability to recall information in a
message (e.g., Collins, Taylor, & Wood, 1988; Shedler
& Manis, 1986).
   In their first experiment, Shedler and Manis (1986)
had participants listen to tape recording involving
favorable and unfavorable arguments with respect a
mother's fitness as a parent.  In one condition, all the
favorable arguments had vivid versions, and all the
unfavorable arguments had nonvivid versions.  The
opposite was true in the other condition.  The
participants were asked to recall the arguments 48 hours
later.  Their results suggest that greater vividness, on the
average, increased the ability to recall arguments.
   In their second study, Collins, Taylor, and Wood
(1988) had participants listen to four messages.  Their
findings suggest that greater vividness, on the average,
increased recall of message content.
   However, greater vividness may not always increase
recall of information in a message.  Frey and Eagly
(1993) did
not find that greater vividness increased
recall of information.  In fact, in their low attentional
constraint condition, a vivid editorial
decreased recall,
on the average.  They also found that a vivid editorial
was perceived to be more distracting and as having a less
logical train of thought.   Thus, it may be important that
the vivid information in a message is logical and not
distracting.  (1)
    In order to recall a message, ideas, or concepts, it
may be good to create detailed and colorful examples
that are perceived to be
not distracting, and also
logically consistent with the message, ideas, or
concepts.  This might be a way to increase recall of the
message, ideas, or concepts.   More research may be
needed to gain a better understanding of the influence of
vividness on memory.

1.  See their article for more information about their
study and findings.


Collins, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Wood, J. V.  (1988).
 The vividness effect:  Elusive or Illusory?  J
  of Experimental Social Psychology
, 24, 1-18.
Frey, K. P., & Eagly, A. H.  (1993).  Vividness can
  undermine the persuasiveness of messages.  J
  Personality and Social Psychology
, 65, 32-44.
Shedler, J., Manis, M. (1986).  Can the availability
  heuristic explain vividness effects?  J
ournal of
  Personality and Social Psychology
, 51, 26-36.