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               Operant Conditioning

   Operant conditioning is an important concept in psychology.  What is operant
conditioning?   Below is a definition of operant conditioning.

Operant Conditioning Definition

    Operant conditioning is a learning process that involves an increase or
decrease in the likelihood of some behavior as a result of the consequences.

Types of Operant Conditioning

   
The types of operant conditioning include positive reinforcement, negative
reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.  Below are some
definitions of these types of operant conditioning.

Posstive Reinforcement Definition:

   
Positive reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior
increases as a result of the presentation of something pleasant after the
behavior.     
Negative Reinforcement Definition:

    
Negative reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior
increases as the result of removing something unpleasant after the behavior.

Positive Punishment Definition:

    
Positive punishment occurs when the likehood of a certain behavior
decreases as the result of the presentation of something unpleasant after the
behavior.

Negative Punishment Definition:

   
Negative punishment occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior
decreases as the result of the removal of something pleasant after the behavior.

Operant Conditioning Examples

Examples of Positive Reinforcement
 
    We may continue to go to work each day because we receive a paycheck on
a weekly or montly basis.   If we receive awards for writing short stories, we
may be more likely to increase the frequency of writing short stories.  Receiving
praise for our karaoke performances can increase how often we sing.  These are
all examples of positive reinforcement.

Example of Negative Reinforcement

 
  Imagine that you decided to open a window in your home.  However, you
are not happy with the noise from the traffic.  Thus, you decide to turn on the
radio and listen to music.  This makes the traffic noise less noticeable.  The
frequency in which you turn on the radio when the window is open has
increased.  This would be an example of negative reinforcement.  Turning on
the radio has resulted in a decrease in the unpleasantness of the traffic noise.

Example of Positive Punishment

    
An example of positive punishment is when the negative behavior of an
employee decreases as the result of being criticized by a supervisior.

Example of Negative Punishment

  
An example of negative punishment is when the frequency in which an
employee is late for work deceases as a result of losing the right to listen to
music while he or she works.

Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment

 It is important to not confuse negative reinforcement and punishment.  They
are different.  Negative reinforcement involves an
increase in a behavior.   In
contrast, punishment involves a
decrease in a behavior.

Drawbacks of Positive Reinforcement

  Positive reinforcement may seem to be an ideal technique to increase certain
postive behaviors.  Managers may be able to motivate employees using positive
reinforcement techniques.  However, there can be some drawbacks.
  First, the use of positive reinforcement techniques may result in people
becoming more extrinsically motivated.  Extrinsic motivation may undermine
creativity.  In Amabile's (1985) experiment, people were asked to write two
poems.  Before writing the second poem, some people were given a
questionnaire in which they were asked to rank the importance of some reasons
for writing.  In one condition, these reflected extrinsic motivation.   In another
condition, they reflected intrinsic motivation.   In the control condition, people
did not received a questionnaire with reasons for writing.  The poems in the
extrinsic-orientation condition were judged to be less creative, on the average,
than the poems in the control condition.
    Second, the ideal employee may be one who is intrinsically motivated and
does not require constant supervision.  Intrinsically motivated employees may be
less likely to be late.  They also may be more likely to excel at their jobs.  Thus,
positive reinforcement techniques may not lead to ideal employees in a company.

References         

Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational    
 orientation on creative writers.
Journal of Personality and Social
 Psychology
, 48, 393-399.