Effects of Music:    Does the Type of Music
           Influence How Much We Spend at Restaurants?

Music can be soothing and make us feel happy.  But does music influence
how much we spend at restaurants?  This is one of the important questions
concerning the possible effects of music.
 North, Shilcock, and Hargreaves (2003) investigated the influence of the type
music on spending behavior at a restaurant.  The participants were customers
at a restaurant, and they did not know that they were in an experiment.  Each
participant at the restaurant listened to either classical music, pop music, or no
music.  They found that the mean total amount of money spent at the
restaurant was greater for people who listened to classical music than for
people who listened to pop music or no music.  The difference between the
pop music group and the no music group was not statistically significant with
respect to the mean total amount of money spent at the restaurant.(1)
One of the explanantions they provided for the findings involved the idea that
classical music fosters an upmarket (upscale) atmosphere.


1.  The analyses comparing the groups controlled for the amount of time spent
in the restaurant.  See their article for other findings.


North, A. C., Shilcock, A., & Hargreaves, D.J. (2003).  The effect of
musical style on restaurant customers' spending.  
Environment and   
35, 712-718.
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